Brief search “Heavy metals in sewage sludge” on Google Scholar – lots more there
Plus pdfs attached
*Ecophysiology of metals in terrestrial invertebrates.
ELSEVIER APPLIED SCIENCE, BARKING (UK). 1989.
This is the first book to present a wide-ranging review of the importance of metals
in the ecology and physiology (hence "ecophysiology") of terrestrial
invertebrates. Introductory chapters consider metal chemistry, essentiality and
non-essentiality of specific metals such as zinc, copper, cadmium and lead,
sources of metal pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems, and analytical
techniques for the determination of concentrations of metals in biological
tissues. Subsequent coverage is at several levels. At the ecosystem level, the
deleterious effects of metal pollutants on decomposition processes and
invertebrate abundance and diversity are described with reference to specific
contaminated sites in England and Sweden. At the organism level, the factors
controlling uptake, storage and secretion of metals in the major taxonomic
groups of terrestrial invertebrates are outlined and several new theories are
proposed as to why particular species have adopted particular strategies for
metal detoxification. At the cellular level, metal-containing proteins and
intracellular "granules" are described in detail.
*Chemical extractability of heavy metals during and after long-term applications of sewage sludge to
soil. S. P. McGRATH1,
Sequential extractions were used on soils from a long-term experiment treated with either
metal-contaminated sewage sludge or inorganic fertilizers between 1942 and
1961. The four extracts employed were CaCl2, NaOH, EDTA and aqua regia. These showed that large
increases in the proportions of Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cd in at least one of the
first three fractions occurred during the first 10 years of sewage sludge
additions. Cr always remained predominantly in the aqua regia-soluble fraction. For 30 years after this,
including a period of more than 20 years after application of sludges to the
field had ceased, there was very little change in the percentage of each metal
extracted by each reagent.
Although the ‘residual’ (aqua regia-soluble) and EDTA fractions usually contained the largest amounts of metals in either sludge- or
fertilizer-treated soils, there were clear differences between the metals: Pb
represented the largest fraction of any metal extracted by EDTA, Cu of any
metal extracted by NaOH and Cd of any metal extracted by CaCl2. The
same extractions were made of the sewage sludges that were applied to the
field, and the distributions of the metals differed from those found in the
treated soils. It was particularly apparent that more Pb and Cu was present as
the ‘residual’ (aqua regia)
fraction in sludges than in the soils.
*Laboratory diffusion testing for waste disposal — A review
Charles D Shackelforda
Received 25 October 1989;
accepted 12 September 1990.
Available online 22 April 2003.
This paper reviews the state-of-the-art for the measurement in the laboratory of diffusion
coefficients of chemical waste constituents in fine-grained soils. The purpose
of the review is to present the experimental and analytical methods for
determining liquid-phase diffusion coefficients which can be used in practice
for the design and evaluation of waste containment barriers.
After the appropriate equations describing mass transport in soil are presented, the practical
significance of diffusion coefficients in soil (known as “effective diffusion
coefficients”) are described. Appropriate analytical solutions required to
calculate the effective diffusion coefficient (D*) from the measured laboratory data also are presented
for several different initial and boundary conditions. The advantages and
disadvantages of each method are noted.
A summary of effective diffusion coefficients from the literature suggests that the major physical
factor affecting the value of the measured diffusion coefficient is the degree
of saturation of the soil, with D*-values
for nonreactive and reactive solutes in saturated soils being as much as 10–20
times higher than the corresponding values in unsaturated soils. Most of the
other physical factors only become important in soils which are highly
unsaturated. In addition, the diffusive transport rates of reactive solutes
subject to reversible sorption reactions can be as much as 5000 times lower
than those of nonreactive solutes in saturated soils and from 20 to 630,000
times lower in unsaturated soils.
This paper was first presented at the session on “Clays as Containment Barriers” at the 26th Annual
Meeting of the Clay Minerals Society, California State University, Sacramento,
California, U.S.A., September 25–28, 1989.
*Behaviors of Metals in Soils – Chapter 3 in EPA Environmental assessment sourcebook by Russell Boulding
*Chemical partitioning of trace and major elements in soils contaminated by mining and smelting activities
Received 23 May 2000;
accepted 18 March 2001.
Editorial handling by R. Fuge.
Available online 23 August 2001.
Soils from historical Pb mining and smelting areas in Derbyshire, England have been
analysed by a 5-step sequential extraction procedure, with multielement
determination on extraction solutions at each step by ICP-AES. Each of the
chemical fractions is operationally defined as: (i) exchangeable; (ii) bound to
carbonates or specifically adsorbed; (iii) bound to Fe–Mn oxides; (iv) bound to
organic matter and sulphides; (v) residual. The precision was estimated to be
about 5%, and the overall recovery rates were between 85 and 110%. The
carbonate/specifically adsorbed and Fe–Mn oxide phases are the largest
fractions for Pb in soils contaminated by both mining and smelting. Most of the
Zn is associated with Fe–Mn oxide and the residual fractions. Cadmium is
concentrated in the first 3 extraction steps, particularly in the exchangeable
phase. The most marked difference found between soils from the mining and
smelting sites is the much higher concentrations and proportions of metals in
the exchangeable fraction at the latter sites. This indicates greater mobility
and potential bioavailability of Pb, Zn and Cd in soils at the smelting sites
than in those in the mining area. The most important fraction for Fe and Al is
the residual phase, followed by the Fe–Mn oxide forms. In contrast, the Fe–Mn
oxide fraction is the dominant phase for Mn in these soils. In the mining area,
most of the Ca is in the carbonate fraction (CaCO3), while the
exchangeable and residual phases are the main fractions for Ca at the smelting
sites. Phosphorus is mainly in the residual and organic fractions in both
areas. The exchangeable fractions of Pb, Zn and Cd in soils were found to be
significantly related to the concentrations of these metals in pasture herbage.
The solid solution equilibria of lead and cadmium in polluted soils
M. JOPONY, S.D. YOUNG
Article first published online: 28 JUL 2006 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.1994.tb00487.x
A method for the measurement of Pb and Cd in equilibrium soil solutions involving
soil equilibration with a dilute Ca electrolyte, centrifugation and filtration
to <0.2 μm was evaluated. The procedure was subsequently used for the
analysis of 100 Pb- and 30 Cd-contaminated soils. Solutions were analysed for
Pb- and Cd using graphite-furnace AAS and the concentrations of Pb2+
and Cd2+ were estimated using standard speciation calculations.
The concentrations of Pb and Cd found in the soil solutions were in the range
3.5–3600 μg dmp −3 and 2.7–1278 μg dm −3 respectively;
both ranges represented less than 0.1% of the total metal concentration in the
soils. Depending on solution pH, Pb +2 accounted for between 42–78%
of Pb in solution while about 65% of Cd in solution was present as Cd+2.
The concentrations of Pb2+ and Cd2+ in solution suggested
that the soil solutions were undersaturated with respect to the solid phases
PbC03 and CdC03 but supersaturated with respect to Pb5(P04)3Cl
and, for some samples, Cd3(P04)2 respectively.
However, for both metals, a good empirical relationship was obtained between
the total metal concentration in soil (mol kg−1), free metal
concentration in solution (mol dm−3) and solution pH. The
relationships took the general form of a pH-dependent Freundlich adsorption
For both lead and cadmium relationships, the values ofn and K1 were
close to unity, so that the distribution coefficient could be estimated from pH
and a single metal-dependent constant, K2.
The algorithms appeared to be valid over a metal concentration range of four
logarithmic units and pH range of 3.5–7.5.